Teachers’ Education and Teacher Quality

There are certain attributes and qualities associated with a good teacher.  Some of the most notable are discussed below.

Broad and specialized mastery of the discipline that teaches

It is related to knowing how to handle the facts, concepts and principles of the same. It also covers the use of the best ways to organize and connect ideas, as well as the way to conceive discipline.  However, it is considered an indispensable condition to be a good teacher, but not sufficient.

General pedagogical mastery

It allows applying the general principles of the education to be able to organize and give good the class; Includes the ability to appropriately use different strategies and didactic tools.   It is a broad domain that transcends the specific to a subject or theme.

Content-specific pedagogical mastery

It allows applying the concrete strategies to teach a specific topic, what is now called “the didactics of the discipline”. It has to do with how to organize, present and manage content, issues and problems of the subject considering the needs and interests of the learner as well as the epistemology of the discipline itself and what is expected to be done by a professional. In doing so, the teacher can adequately present the material following the pedagogical guidelines in order to make it comprehensible to the students. Both pedagogical domains (general and specific) can positively influence a better understanding of disciplinary knowledge. The pedagogical domain, or “to know to teach”, is one of the main deficiencies of the university teachers and the one that receives less attention.

Curriculum mastery

It is the ability to design study programs where explicit the set of actions that will make to adapt their teaching to the characteristics of the students, considering the type of content and the goals of the program. It includes the selection and use of the relevant teaching materials (textbook, videos, use of ICT, etc.).

Clarity about educational purposes

It not only includes the concrete purposes of its subject matter, but also the ultimate aims of the whole educational act. It includes goals, mainly of the attitudinal type and of personal transformations; That is, to ask if what he is teaching will have a positive impact on the students’ lives and on the social utility of what they have learned.

Another key quality that has been identified is the importance of the teacher feeling self- effective, meaning the belief in one’s own abilities to organize and execute a course of action required to achieve a given achievement. This quality has two components: one is “the expectation of obtaining results” or the estimation that makes the person about that certain behavior will obtain the desired effects; the second is “the expectation of effectiveness,” or conviction that it has the ability to perform the conduct required to produce the expected results.

Global Warming

Global Warming

Global warming can be referred as the constant increase in the Earth’s average temperature since 1950. It also denotes to climate change that results in rise in the average temperature. Global warming is a grave problem and it is not an only issue but several environmental concerns. The causes of global warming are classified into two classes such as “human influences” and “natural” causes.

Natural Causes of Global Warming

The temperature of the Earth has been changing continuously for periods. The global warming takes place due to sun’s natural rotation that increases the strength of sunlight and moves closer to the earth. Greenhouse gases, sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide, is another cause of global warming. These gases trap the rays of solar heats and stop it from evading from the earth’s surface. This results in rise in the earth temperature. Moreover, volcanic eruptions also cause global warming. For example, a single volcanic eruption discharges a significant amount of CO2 and ash to the environment. Once CO2 rises, the temperature of the earth increases and greenhouse traps the solar emissions.

In last, methane, a greenhouse gas, is another main cause of global warming. It traps the heat 20 times more effectively in the environment as compared to CO2. Commonly it can be released from different sources such as from landfill, cattle, petroleum systems, natural gas, industrial waste process, mobile explosion or coal mining,.

Human Influences on Global Warming

Among several factors, the influence of human is considered very serious due to unfriendly human activities. Human factors causing globing are more severe than natural. Among unfriendly human activities, burning of fossil fuel, industrial production, cattle rearing, mining and deforestation are most prominent.Industrial have been making use of fossil fuels for the generation of power machines which makes almost everything of human use. For example, the process of manufacturing mobile phone involves machines which run through fossil fuels. In addition, these machineries release carbon di oxide.   Moreover, deforestation is yet another most important cause of global warming. Deforestation is one of the unfriendly human activity through which they cut down trees to produce wood, papers and other wood materials. Carbon dioxide concentrates more in the atmosphere due to deforestation because trees have potential of absorbing CO2 from atmosphere.



Warmer temperatures

In 2012, the Sahel countries in North Africa suffered a food crisis that affected about 18 million people due to the scarcity of rain. The effects of drought are not new in this area, which is experiencing periodic recurrent droughts but the intensity and frequency of these droughts, which have increased during the last decade due to the increase in temperatures in the planet.

More intense storms

The fact that temperatures are higher makes the rains less frequent, but more intense; Therefore, the level of floods and their severity will also increase.

Disease propagation

A temperature change of several degrees can make the temperate zone more welcoming to the spread of certain diseases. In this way, cases of Chagas disease, dengue or other diseases that are forgotten in developed countries and in areas that have traditionally been colder can begin to occur. This also affects developing countries. A case study in Ethiopia conducted by scientists at the University of Denver (UD) and Michigan (UM) concluded that a one-degree increase in ambient temperature results in the development of 3 million more cases of malaria in Ethiopia in patients less than 15 years of age.

Stronger heat waves

The global warming of the planet produced by the accelerated burning of exhaustible fossil fuels has been very intense in the North Pole. This makes the North Pole much hotter today than it was fifty years ago. The health and even the lives of thousands of people may be at risk due to the increase in heat waves, both in frequency and intensity.

More dangerous hurricanes

Rising sea temperatures cause hurricanes to become more violent because a hurricane is the means that the planet has to distribute the excess heat from warm to cooler areas. And at more temperature, more hurricanes, with all the problems they entail: destruction of cities, crops, dismantling of all systems, diseases.

Change of ecosystems

Higher temperatures, less precipitation, droughts and floods make the climate adapt to this new climate and, therefore, there are changes in the duration of the seasons, appear patterns more typical of monsoon climates.

More Expensive Foods

Climate change threatens the production of basic foods such as wheat, which means that hundreds of thousands of people whose lives depend on their crops are at risk of losing everything. And not only that: if crops are scarce, prices soar. This affects us all, but in the least developed countries, with very high poverty rates, the consequences can be devastating.


The crux of the matter is that global warming is a serious problem which is mainly caused due to unfriendly human activities. Its impacts are severe for the survival of human being on the earth. It does not only affect the human lifestyle but also impart a significant impact on the economy. Human must take individual as well as collective measures to stop unfriendly activities such as deforestation, burning of fossil fuel, or burning garbage. In addition, government must also reduce deforestation because it is the main factor of increasing earth temperature.   Recycling is another way to reducing global warming and its impacts. The process of recycling can reduce trash by re-using bottles, plastic bags, glass or papers. By encouraging environment friendly activities, the impact of global warming can be reduced.

Social Media

Social Media

Social media is currently one of the online services most used by people around the world, and the success of them is based on several factors, although it stands out the fact that it is a platform of almost direct communication, which allows Feedback, feedback among users, and all in a very simple way. Due to their characteristics and possibilities, social networks have a number of interesting advantages for those who use them, but at the same time they also report certain flaws that make these online communities present at the same time a series of disadvantages.

It is precisely here that we analyze broadly the main advantages and disadvantages of social networks today, but before that we must know in general terms what a social network really is.  A social network in principle is a website in which people from all over the world can participate in the communication, for which they have the possibility to configure an online profile, which includes their information, their tastes and interests, Where users can also post comments, photos, videos and more.

Due to their characteristics, social networks can become an ideal space for people to keep in touch with each other, regardless of where in the world they are. In addition, social networks are widely used by artists, celebrities, companies and others to disseminate information and at the same time to increase the volume of followers, both in the virtual world and in real life. All this has meant that in recent years social networks have become an element that has significantly modified the way of communicating, and at the same time the way of doing business.

However, as we mentioned before, in the world of social networks as well as being able to take advantage of the great advantages that this type of services have, we also have to face the disadvantages of its use, so here we tell you what the pro And against these communities.  The truth is that social networks have varied advantages and disadvantages, and it is not strange that both aspects are related to each other. We know that social networks offer the possibility of meeting new people, transmit information, and keep in touch with family and friends, but at the same time social networks is also the ideal place for fraudsters and hackers to do theirs, where Lies can be spread, and where bullies find space to harass their victims.

Advantages of social networks

Among the main advantages reported by social networks we can ensure that one of its most outstanding benefits lies in the ability they have to connect people around the world. This is possibly the most obvious advantage of social networks, since it is also ultimately its essential objective. Likewise, social networks have the benefit of allowing users to establish immediate communications and in a really simple way. Social networks allow us to be able to communicate without the need to use traditional communication channels, such as the telephone service, even if we can do without e-mail.

On the other hand, social networks give us the possibility of accessing news in real time, and at the same time we can discover information that may not be published elsewhere, because the truth is that if we want to know what is happening in the world, just visit some social network to find out.  But social networks are not only an interesting area for individuals, but also provide a wide range of opportunities for companies. That is why more and more companies participate in social networks, because through this platform can sell their products, connect with customers, attract new potential customers, and expand their scope of action.  And of course, social networks are a space where all the people of the world can find a moment of fun, and so it is not surprising that millions of people in the world use a social network during their time off.

Disadvantages of social networks

All good, also has a bad side, and the truth is that social networks do not escape this, because despite having a huge amount of benefits and benefits for its users, there are also certain risks when using this type of Online platforms.  Among the main disadvantages of social networks, we can first mention the aspects related to privacy, since the truth is that social networks leave exposed information about the personal life of its users, so this is a problem that always generates a great concern.

Let’s take into account that everything we publish in social networks is there for others to see, so in addition to the lack of obvious privacy of this aspect, there is also the fact that by sharing too much personal information with others we are facing serious problems in our real life.  On the other hand, it is well known by all that social networks are an area in which scams and cyber bullying are possible. The latter drawback often occurs among younger people who use this type of platform, as children and adolescents are often subject to harassment on the internet.

This can lead in real life to start a person suffering from self-esteem problems, and may even experience depression.  Another important disadvantage raised by social networks is that online interaction can replace the interaction of people in real life, that is, that the fluid and constant online communication through these communities causes in large Measure the real communication between people and that is why many experts assert that social networks promote antisocial behavior.  Also, while we mention that social networks have the advantage of allowing us to access information in real time, the truth is that this can also lead to saturation, so that we can become overwhelmed by the information disseminated.  We also have to keep in mind that not everything that is published in social networks is true, since the truth is that these communities are an ideal space for the dissemination of lies , false information and even for the defamation of people, entities And companies.


Finally, we must bear in mind that it has been shown that the use of social networks can often lead to addiction, so they also distract us, lead to sedentary lifestyle habits and may even negatively modify our behavior in real life.  Therefore, it is important that we use social networks to be communicated, but always taking into account the prejudices that can cause us, in order to be alert and able to take advantage of them without end up being a victim of unscrupulous people or being captives of the platform.

Reflective Essay

Reflective Essay

A reflective essay is a type of paper in which the writer uses personal experience to reflect on a past idea or event. This type of essay can vary from informal to formal, depending on the reason and context in which it is written. It is often used to mark the end of something: an event, a class or a project, for example. The writer not only reflects on a past event, however; He or she interprets what the event means.

Writing your thoughts on a topic gives you the opportunity to clarify your position on the subject. Sculpturing a coherent reflective essay to present your ideas in the most elegant way requires a lot of time and preparation. Above all, it is required that you exercise your powers of analysis. In the following lines, you will find some useful tips on how to write a thoughtful essay, which could be of help to you.

Before you start writing a thoughtful essay, you should devote considerable time to thinking about the topic. It allows your conscious and subconscious to reflect on the subject. When you perform the mental reflection exercise, ideas in writing will flow easily. When you are ready to write, you will know.

For example if one wants to write a reflective essay on teaching, He first asks himself some questions about teaching. What are your goals and aspirations as a teacher? Have these goals changed over time? What are your beliefs about teaching, and how would you describe your role in the classroom? Think analogies that can describe your behavior as a teacher. Then he has to look again at his teaching goals and his definition of a successful learning situation. What steps would he take / have taken to achieve these goals and achieve successful learning in your classroom? Think of specific tasks, course material, lesson plans, assessment tools and student evaluations of his teaching. Then determine how he plans to continue developing as a teacher. Would he like to attend workshops? Does he want to attend disciplinary meetings and / or conventions? Does he intend to write a book or make presentations in your discipline about your teaching methods?

After all that the person should start organizing and writing his reflective essay using the information he came up with during the previous steps. Teaching and learning written reflection is personal, and must be written in the first person, the informal style. A personal anecdote can serve as an introduction to your teaching and learning goals and philosophies, but is not mandatory.

After writing the anecdote introduction or general introduction, go back on steps, give each of these steps of its own paragraph or two in reflective essay, so the essay would be organized as follows: the definition of learning success, beliefs and goals as a teacher and descriptions of how the classroom activities and designs reflect the teaching goals and ideas about successful learning. Finish with the ideas for continuous professional development. Once the reflective essay is completed, it should be reviewed by someone and respond to the reflection and then make the necessary revisions.

How to write a good reflective essay

There is usually not a specific format for a reflective essay; however, the typical five-paragraph essay format can be useful as a way of organizing thoughts. For example, the first paragraph could include the introduction, which introduced the theme of the essay and the statement of the thesis. This paragraph should generally be interesting enough to entice readers into reading the rest of the essay. To illustrate, if the essay is composed on the completion of a class project, the introduction should include an explanation of what the project was, and the thesis statement should then include what the learner learns through the completion of the project.

The next part of the five-paragraph essay format is the body. In general, this constitutes the bulk of the essay and provides supporting evidence for the thesis statement. Using the example of a written essay on the completion of a project, the agency would include the paragraphs that explain in more detail what was learned during the project. Examples of how the student can be introduced, as well as interpretations of those examples. These paragraphs can include facts as well as a personal vision.

The final paragraph of a reflective essay is the conclusion. In this section, the statement of the general thesis was reaffirmed. After this, the conclusion sums up what the rest of the document has been about and may suggest implications of the experience. It should also be a summary of the knowledge that the student has acquired, as well as the knowledge of the student can recognize that is still missing after the experience.

Self-assessment may be another way of categorizing a reflective essay. Another example of when a reflective essay can be written is the time to apply for a scholarship. In this case, the applicants may be forced to reflect on the reasons that deserve the scholarship. This can incorporate not only personal experience, but external data such as statistics. A thoughtful essay may look inward, but its aim remains to convince readers of the writer’s point of view.

Language to use for writing a reflective essay

In reflective essays, writers have the opportunity to insert themselves into their prose, allowing their thoughts and feelings on the subject matter to shine through writing. To ensure that the reflective essay is effective, one must provide a clear and detailed description of his feelings about the object he is reflecting on. For this, there are a number of different types of language one probably have to employ

Personal pronouns: Since reflexive essays are direct, they must be written in the first person.  Sequence terms: If you are relating an occurrence, or sequence, it helps the reader understand the order of events and adds fluency to your writing. Use words like “first,” ” By using these types of words one can help readers better understand what the writer’s feelings are.

Sensory Language: Through the use of sensory language one can allow readers to immerse themselves in the writing and fully understand the events.

Process Analysis Essay

Process Analysis Essay

A process analysis essay is a brief writing where a particular subject is exposed or disclosed to the recipient. The topic can be a real event such as informative news, a description of a fact or any other topic that one wants to convey. It should be very well organized with an introduction a body and a conclusion, all brief, clear and in relation to the subject. It will be avoided to ramble and if the author wants to express his personal opinion can do in the conclusions, because the body is preferable to be written objectively.

The process analysis essays help to make more informed decisions and arouse in the teacher the concern to question his role in his class and in society. Process analysis essay analysis takes into account its previous experiences in order to integrate them into its current practice. The more constructively the process analysis act is used, the more the teacher develops skills and creativity to adapt during interventions.

Process Analysis essay allows the teacher to integrate knowledge related to his pedagogy. Process Analysis essay enables one to realize one’s strengths and limitations as a pedagogical actor. Pedagogical analysis allows the teacher to set goals for personal and professional development. Process Analysis essay provides an objective perspective on school life that is an integral part of its everyday environment. It allows the teacher to assume more adequately his choices in the face of his interventions.

Understand the stages of work

When you want to radically optimize or transform a process, you need a rigorous method. Process analysis essay is the most appropriate tool for both tasks. In “radical transformation” it helps to change not only the ways of doing things, but also the ways of seeing, the paradigms of the people involved. Moreover, this method encourages participation by involving employees from various sectors who work in constant contact with the actors of the process (in an “expert” approach, participants are in a vacuum without interacting with the environment).

The method involves two fundamental questions: the relevance and the effectiveness of the activities and the stages of the process. In other words:

  • Are we doing the right things?
  • Do we do it the best way?

How to write Process Analysis Essay

There are three steps in writing process Analysis Essay:

  1. The observation:
  • Take note of the characteristics of the class;
  • Awareness of pedagogy, learning strategy and methods used by the teacher;
  • Awareness of the teacher’s attitudes and values
  1. The analysis:
  • The teacher must find meaning in each of the observations;
  • Analyse the relevance, validity and impact of the facts;
  • Classify and identify information by explaining their importance and emotional impacts;
  • Discern the strengths and weaknesses of the various situations observed;
  • To make connections between observations and certain notions or theories learned during training
  1. Integrated Synthesis:
  • Develop a synthesis that encompasses the first two steps;
  • Sort out its strengths and weaknesses by listing the strengths it wishes to preserve as well as the weaknesses it wishes to compensate;
  • Be aware of the causes that cause them to modify certain elements;
  • Find solutions to achieve the objectives

There are three levels (models) of process analysis essay:

  1. Model for reflection in action: This is the continuous analysis that the teacher makes throughout an activity that he / she animates. However, this model does not include any feedback after the action;
  2. Model of reflection on its action: The position that the teacher adopts to take a step back on the action. A process analysis essay on the causes related to the events with the aim of finding ways to improve the situation;
  3. Reflection on its model of action: Ability to distance himself / herself from the situation and adopt objective behavior towards it. This model is a very complex and difficult to achieve practice because it is an in-depth analysis

Tips in Writing Process Analysis Essay

  • Short sentences (subject-verb-complement): The reader is lost in a sentence of 10 lines; he must read it several times to locate the subject and the verb and to understand its meaning;
  • Sentences in the right order: Avoid putting the subject to the end to understand its meaning. Instead of saying “annotating the student’s text is one of the roles of the research director” one would rather say, “One of the principal roles of the principal of research is to annotate the student’s writing”;
  • No conjunctions at the beginning of the sentence, which unnecessarily weigh down the sentence. Instead of writing “So we think the most appropriate theory is …”, one can write “We think so …”;
  • Limit verbs that are not significant such as “being”, “having” and “doing”. Instead of saying “There are a lot of volunteers in this association” it is better to write, “The association has many volunteers”. The same applies to the verb “power” or “to allow”. Instead of saying “this article gives an overview of the scientific writing “, simply saying “this article gives a …”;
  • Attention to the coherence between an inhuman subject and the verb. For example: “This article talks about …” = an article does not speak. Another example: “Plato tells us that …” = he did not tell us, he wrote it in his book;
  • Delete unnecessary sentences. For example, “This concept is particularly interesting” does not provide additional information, it is an empty sentence. Specify how interesting it is, in order to bring new information;
  • Delete popular expressions that are meaningless and do not provide any information. For example, “since the dawn of time”, “always” or “to-day”; give dates “Since the 1980s, …”;
  • Stay neutral in its terms, no value judgment. Instead of saying “Durkheim, an atypical author addresses …”. The fact that it is atypical only engages you, it is your perception of things. Two solutions: one suppresses this subjectivity, or one justifies it by explaining in what it is atypical;
  • Beware of too many connotations. Instead of saying “age has an impact on master’s achievement” (“an impact” = negatively connoted), we will say rather “age has an effect on …”;
  • Avoid the use of synonyms, because each word has its own meaning. For example “the direction of memory”, “accompaniment”, “framing” which are synonyms, refers to very different ideas and concepts;
  • Replace “etc.” by “such as …” and give some examples;
  • Pay attention to the use of “some” which makes the speech too vague and imprecise. Instead of saying: “Some authors approach the notion …” rather say “certain authors, such as X and Y” or “certain authors (X, 1990; Z, 2005) approach the notion …”;
  • Avoid the use of the impersonal pronoun “on”. For example, “we can come to class at the agreed time”, who does that “we”? To whom does it refer? Rather, students will be able to come;
  • Avoid the use of demonstrative adjectives or demonstrative pronouns “this, that”at the beginning of the sentence. The reader is lost; he is obliged to re-read the preceding sentences in order not to lose the thread. Instead of saying “This is a fine example of …” one will say “This speech is a fine example of …”;
  • No abusive generalization: For example, “a teacher-researcher trains himself in teaching”. This generality does not represent the reality: some are formed by contact with their colleagues, others follow training. What are the sources that support this finding? It would be better to say “According to author X, and author Y, teachers…”;
  • Who is talking? For each sentence, the author of this statement, idea or thought must be mentioned. For example, if you are the author, specify “I think / we think”. If it is the idea of ​​an author, mention it. For example, instead of saying “we can say that / it is proven that …” specify who is the “on”;
  • Explain: everything must be explained. For example, “summative evaluation can also be formative”. What is summative evaluation? Why and how can it be formative?
  • Avoid the unnecessary use of conjunctions “who” and “that”. They unnecessarily increase the sentence and make it more complex. Instead of saying “The idea that was abandoned along the way …”, one would say “the idea was abandoned along the way …”;
  • Limit the use of negative formulations: Instead of saying what they do not “students do not enter the university through the main door”, Rather say what they do (unless negation is important for your analysis of course) “students enter university through the secondary gate”

Literary Analysis Essay

Literary Analysis Essay

While an essay that can be written by a scholar, peer-oriented professionals will give more importance to the background than to form, a writer can write an essay in which he has interest what counts, but he will also be of importance to form In that it does. That is, vocabulary and writing are carefully chosen.In this case we would be talking about a literary analysis essay in its broadest sense and could contain essays of another type to which they are literary. We understand with this that an argumentative essay could also be a literary analysis essay if one takes care of the form in which it is written. Even a scientific essay might be literary analysis, although not the most usual, if you take care of the way it is written.

If a literary analysis essay is defined referring to the subject matter of the essay, then we would be dealing with the analysis of a work of literature or of a particular period or style of the history of writing.Based on this we could make a literary analysis essay on “Don Quixote de la Mancha” or any of the themes or characters that make up the work. One can also make an essay about Cervantes or even about the time or style of the work. The topic we would choose and delimit before we start depending on the purpose of the essay.In short, this type of essay can both talk about literature, and be quality literature itself. Not a few writers have published essays as part of their work.

How to Write a Literary Analysis Essay

In all the essays, to make a literary analysis essay the first thing that we have to do is to narrow down the subject since it is important to be clear on what exactly we want to speak. If the essay is about a literary work or style then we must document it.In the introduction we will explain what exactly we want to talk about, presenting the topic and the positions we are going to defend in our essay. This is what we know as theses or theories. It can be a single thesis or we can defend several, depending on the transcendence and length of our essay.

In the body we will develop the theme. In order to defend our arguments we can use quotations from the reference works, always in quotes so that there is no doubt that we are not the authors of the same. You can put the origin at the end of the appointment or it can be indicated at the bottom of the page or in an attachment at the end of the trial.The essay ends with the conclusions we have drawn by summarizing the fundamental ideas, which we want to remain in the reader’s head.

Make notes about the essay in the second reading, pointing out contradictions, debatable statements, and interesting topics. Analysis or critique of an essay after the first reading is difficult to achieve because the processing of an unknown text forces you to make connections that may not be obvious the first time. Keep enough distance from the text during later readings to distinguish between the author’s ideas and his own views on those ideas.

Answer specific essay questions, including identification of the author’s idea and purpose. To analyse the essay, we will determine the questions or theories of the authors’ address, as well as the details or points that support their argument. Take into account the author’s conclusion on the topic under study and articulate in his own words what the author is trying to say. Once you have analysed the essay, you will be better prepared to critique the text.

Look for gaps in the presentation, as if the author successfully presented and denied opposing views. Decide if you feel the author has given enough evidence to support your points. Identify strengths and weaknesses in the content and organization of the essay. Perhaps the author presents ideas based on the hereditary hypothesis that fails to recognize or validate. Articulate your critical reaction to the wording, pointing out points of contention or agreement. His work as a critical reader is to present a summary of information from the trials analysed, followed by his interpretation of the meaning of the author. Perform and present this aspect of your work so you can intelligently and effectively evaluate text based on your analysis.

When given an essay for analysis and criticism, the final product of literary analysis essay is typically presented in the form of an essay. Although the work in the critique of an essay, it is not, summarize the text under study. It is necessary to provide the audience with a brief explanation of the content of the essay.

Organizing the work in a way that introduces the audience to the author’s ideas before presenting an informed interpretation of ideas and their critical response to interpretation. Include passages in the text to demonstrate the author’s intent and present textual evidence to support his or her point of view.

Special tools for a literary analysis essay

As we have seen, form is important so in a literary essay we will use some of the following tools:

  • A comprehensive and careful vocabulary: It is not a question of using fancy words that the reader does not understand, but of not repeating terms by using synonyms, avoiding excessively colloquial words, not using localisms trying to make Castilian as neutral as possible;
  • A correct and careful grammar;
  • Rhetorical figures: Intended to give greater beauty or intensity to the text. Rhetorical figures are literary and grammatical resources. Here we can see which are the main rhetorical figures and examples of their use;
  • A good rhythm: A well-written text should have a good rhythm, at times more paused to stop to explain something in detail, and more agile in others, avoiding the unnecessary repetitions and explanations that cause boredom in the reader.

Evaluation Essay

Evaluation Essay

The evaluation has now had a resurgence or simply increased its interest in this concept and / or process, as all participants in an educational process realize the need to be evaluated, but at the same time with their growing interest has come from a confusion inherited from confusing the term evaluation with the grade or the school measurement. That is why it is of the utmost importance that all participants acquire a will to change to be able to mutate into a new paradigm where the evaluation is not seen as the qualification or the numeral value that is given to the student to measure their knowledge.

In the universe of pedagogy there are several concepts of “evaluation”, and varies according to methodologies, but what is certainly symmetrical between several conceptions, is the end of it, which is to give a starting point for education is embarking on seas of improvement, quality, authenticity, clarity but above all enhance that which all students learn.

The evaluation essays are to establish an analysis in favour of improving the educational quality, either at the macro or micro level, which involves establishing a process consciously according to the circumstances of the universe to be evaluated, where the multivariate application of instruments that allow inference, where evaluation is necessarily affected by the implicit and explicit participation of various educational actors, positively or negatively affecting the learning context of the students either to meet the goal or to affect the motivation and self-esteem of the students themselves.

The following conceptions have been emerged from the evaluation essays:

  • The evaluation essay is seen by the students as a sanctioning and qualifying instrument;
  • Students hearing the word evaluation feel nervousness, fear, worry and overwhelmed;
  • For students, the result is more important than what is learned, that is, they are more concerned about approving than learning;
  • The teacher is seen as a vigilante and punisher when carrying out an evaluation;
  • Evaluation essay affects students’ self-esteem and personal worth;
  • The evaluation is seen under a panic approach and not of help, understanding of the teaching-learning process carried out;
  • Evaluation essay is a tradition based on quantification parameters;
  • Students equate as a synonym with notes or report cards;
  • Students conceive the evaluation essay as the test where they will be assessed;
  • The evaluation essay relies on a single actor (teacher or evaluator), i.e. a hetero-evaluation.

How to write Evaluation Essays

Professionals give valuations for valuable work to inform people how much anything is worth. Sometimes the owners are pleasantly surprised. Other times, the room is not worth as much as the owner thought. In evaluation essay, the writer gives the news and assessment about anything whether it is good or not. When you write several evaluation essays, it might be useful to have a sample to work from.

  • Prepare the position of the thing on which the evaluation essay has to be written. The title should include the thing about which the evaluation is in preparation, the writer’s association with the thing or concept to be evaluated and the time when the evaluation essay is written
  • Include information about the work that is to be evaluated. This includes all information, such as the artist or manufacturer, the description of the thing and the methods used to create it. If possible, include a photo in this section;
  • Leave free space for the writer to take notes on the piece to be evaluated. The amount of notes will depend on the piece, but the evaluation of the sample must contain at least one page of space to take notes;
  • The conclusion includes the findings were gathered through research, for example, which the manufacturer is for the thing, as well as the estimated amount of the coin;
  • Include an appendix where applicable. The appendix may include similar parts that the evaluation was based on, any research done and information about the evaluation company

Evaluation Essay and its relation to the practice of teaching

Theevaluation essay relates to teaching directly according to its function. Evaluation essay, although it is known that its aim is to improve, also impacts directly on the learning either positively or negatively, but mainly impacts by the administrative outcome that entails an evaluation, i.e. by the qualification that refers exclusively to the evaluation of the learning of the students (school grade). Qualifying, therefore, is a more restricted activity than valuing. In evaluation essay’s value judgment, the student’s degree of sufficiency, insufficiency, knowledge, skills and abilities are usually expressed as the result of some kind of test, activity, exam or process.So if the evaluation essay has a direct impact on the learning by the act of qualifying, undoubtedly that impact becomes motivational or non-motivational for the students, where said feeling promotes the improvement of learning in the students.

But for this impact to be positive-motivational attention must be paid to the active participation of the student in the evaluation, that is, it must be an evaluation essay that is conceived as continuous and formative, that is, an evaluation for learning and not merely of learning. It emerges as a qualitative class and is related to the evaluation procedures and the participation of the evaluators, where the synergy of hetero-evaluation, co-evaluation and self-evaluation leads to an authentic evaluation, to a 360º evaluation.

The evaluation essay is a fundamental element of the teaching-learning process, but the most important, since the evaluation provides the possibility of social transformation, so differentiating the evaluation of qualification and / or measurement would lead to a “culture of evaluation” that would favour the abruptness of educational quality, which would not be limited to the school but would extend to other social activities.The evaluation essay will increase the progress of all students (including those with special educational needs) by using evaluation information effectively.But something that should certainly always be taken into account, and any time aevaluation essay is written, is to know that it can help to improve the effectiveness of teaching-learning, and that is certainly a fundamental tool for the teacher for the constant improvement of your work.

Cyber bullying

Cyber bullying

Cyber bullying, also known as cyber bullying, has become one of the most common phenomena in today’s school communities. Some authors define it as the possibility of using new information and communication technologies to harass a victim, or as a manifestation of school harassment that occurs through virtual platforms and tools Such as chats, blogs, fotologs, and text messages for mobile devices, e-mail, forums, servers that store videos or photographs, web pages, cell phones and other technological media.

This type of bullying includes all those behaviors of mockery, defamation, aggression, intimidation and intimidation against an individual or group through mobile phones or the Internet ( blogs , chat , post office, Facebook, etc.), which has enormous consequences Psychological problems in those affected who see their identity totally violated in their social environment.Although cyber bullying can be considered as a new modality or subtype of bullying, the use of electronic means to attack aggressions makes this type of harassment have different and proper characteristics, mainly related to the anonymity of the aggressor. Most of the time, the abuser uses pseudonyms or false names to harass the victim. The concealment of identity facilitates, on the one hand, the aggression and impunity of the aggressor and, on the other, increases the potential for defenselessness of the victim.

Cyber bullying as a problem can be summarized in the sense of impunity that generates this phenomenon especially in the victims, since when operating with technological means usable at any time, place and by any type of adolescent, makes it very difficult to follow up. Therefore, school communities are largely unaware of what preventive measures to take in the face of a situation that does not necessarily arise within the school, which has generated intense debate among those who must take responsibility for this social phenomenon.In cyber bullying different communication platforms are used with the objective of harassing a victim with cruelty. The tools available on the Internet help to spread this behavior in which victims receive abuse from their peers, be it through ridicule, threats, blackmails, discrimination, all anonymously.


Cyber bullying platforms

We will go deeper into some cyber bullying platforms as below elaborated:

 Mobile Phone

This mode of cyber bullying takes different forms according to the possibilities that the cell phone allows. The most traditional form is calls and can be accommodated not only from the mobile phone but from any landline. The cell phone has become a propitious means of harassment, and the young or children who use it are the ideal users to be harassed; Finding a mobile phone number is simple, as well as hiding the number of the caller, so that the anonymity is fully guaranteed. Sometimes they use the mobiles or numbers of other people, to avoid being discovered, which demonstrates not only the intentionality of the acts, but also the ethical inadequacy of them. It is also a medium that allows not only oral, but also textual and multimedia messages, so intimidation and threat are guaranteed by any of the routes used.


It is one of the communication tools whose use has spread massively, considering that at present most of the young people and children have an email account, even before having a computer at home. This form of cyberbullying consists of repeatedly sending offensive and harassing emails to the person who has become a victim of their abuses. Generally, you can find out the e-mail account where the messages were sent (physical location), local or regional accounts being more easily located than large e-mail accounts such asHotmail, Gmail or Yahoo, but in any case , It is difficult to know who actually used that account.

Chats (instant messaging)

The use that children and teenagers make of instant messaging has been linked to the use of telephone, e-mail , face-to-face conversations, focusing excessively on these issues and neglecting other problems Of greater magnitude and relevance. The reality reveals that this technology has been very popular among young people who, despite using other forms of asynchronous communication, advocate an immediate interaction with the other, in which their questions get instant response. Thus, the way in which young people use instant messaging correlates significantly with the level of autonomy of students, thus becoming a propitious tool for cyber bullying.

Recording of Violence

There is a type of aggressor who enjoys recording the blows or intimidations that he makes to his victims through his cell phones, digital video cameras and then disseminates it through the network. He not only enjoys harassing, but also wants to immortalize the act in digital image, and obtain recognition and respect with it. The videos can be hung in a web to be seen by an indeterminate number of people, who viralize their content in massive form.

Disadvantage in the Web

One of the greatest technological tools to discredit, harass or intimidate people are the websites commonly known as social networks, such as: Facebook, Twitter, My Space, Blogspot, Fotolog and Flickr, among others. These share a common characteristic that is often well exploited by the stalkers: the ease of access to any person to integrate into these networks by supplanting data and creating a false user, which is very useful to the cyber-user to collect data and observe the behavior of The victim, in addition to extracting photos without his consent from his social network. Another feature of these social networks is that the cyber-surfer can analyze the behaviors that the person has with their friends with only observing the wall of social media, where there are conversations between the victim and one of his friends, for the purpose To possess a psychological profile of her, to at some point supplant her identity and discredit her in front of her friends.

The nature of harassment and actions perpetrated by aggressors through new communication technologies have made cyberbullying victims suffer the same negative effects on their mental and physical health as those harmed by bullying: low self-esteem, Poor academic performance, depression, emotional maladjustment, eating disorders, and chronic illness, abandonment of homes and, in some cases, violent behavior and suicide.Many sufferers suffer from depression which remains in adulthood. Thus, it is crucial to stop school bullying to reduce and prevent its negative consequences in the short and long term.

Consequences of cyber bullying

Low self-esteem is an important consequence for both cyber-victims and cyber aggressors; however, as already mentioned, it can also be cause to get involved in this phenomenon.Other reported consequences are: insomnia, enuresis, anxiety, headache and abdominal pain, which may be useful to identify cases more easily. In addition, it is clearly pointed out that cyber bullying is a way of generating tension between individuals of all ages, and that minors are the most vulnerable. Other consequences that have been identified are: academic difficulties, behavior problems and, in extreme cases, criminal behavior. As noted, young people who are frustrated and angry, as well as those with increased stress or anxiety, are significantly more likely to harass others through bullying or cyberbullying.

Children’s use of new communication technologies may eventually give us an estimate of the impact of the phenomenon of cyber-bullying. At the moment, the most serious consequences include depression, suicidal ideation and, at worst, suicidal or homicidal attempts.

Prevention of cyber bullying

Some authors have proposed, in the field of public health, anti-bullying and anti-bullying legislation that is applied in each school zone through research-based prevention programs. As a first step in slowing its progress, it has been suggested that such legislation should include sanctions such as school suspension, criminal sanctions and the facility to issue a protective order to victims. Any legislation on the use of information and communication technologies will be insufficient if it is not complemented by programs developed by schools, which promote a culture of peace and civic education. These actions should be strengthened with the participation of parents, so that their children make adequate use of virtual networks and technology.

Cyber bullying often begins with home computers and cell phones given away by the parents themselves; so they should be alert, to supervise the activities that their children perform through these means, and, at the same time, provide them with information on how to use and take advantage of these tools.

It is essential to understand that although the electronic media and its devices are associated with a high risk of cyber bullying, they are simply tools, not the causes of this behavior. It is often difficult for children and adolescents to communicate this type of situation to a trusted adult. Young people also need ways to deal with the stress of interpersonal conflicts, but in a positive and healthy way. Finally, it is important to understand that isolation is not the best way to prevent or protect against cyber bullying.



Leadership is a discipline whose exercise deliberately produces influence in a particular group in order to attain desired objectives. History is a witness to the task of great leaders, both for the benefit and for the corruption and destruction of society. Figures like those of Adolf Hitler, Alexander the Great and Abraham Lincoln, have left traces in the history of the humanity. Although it is not the purpose of this paper to write about them, it is opportune to point out that the leader has a special influence within a group. The changes that take place in the leading groups affect society as a whole.

Some main features of the leaders are:

The vision

Leadership begins when a vision arises. When a group is under the direction of a person who does not have vision, confusion and disorder will result. This principle is the key to understanding leadership. Without a strategic vision, an individual cannot become a leader; it will only be an imitation. The leader is par excellence that actor capable of synthesizing a vision of certain future state of affairs or dream to which it seems desirable to aspire.

A vision is a clear picture of what the leader expects to do or become his group. When working with a vision, you see your results in advance. However, a vision will never become reality unless a program of goals is prepared, adjustable according to the changes that take place, the fulfilment of which leads to the realization of vision, a relatively long image of existence in time.

The love of the activity

Harold Geneen, in his book entitled Managing, establishes an important distinction between a leader and a commander. The leader guides his people; the commander tells him what to do: “I want this to be done by that date and if you do not, then the heads will roll.” The commander rules by fear, the leader do it out of love. This attribute makes the true leader differ from the one who has the power in his hands. Too often we confuse leadership with popularity, with power, with theatricality, or with the wisdom of long-range plans.”

On this trait, Ted Engstrom, points out in his book The Fine Art of Friendship, some aspects that, although sometimes mentioned as independent, in another way of seeing belong to the expression of this feature. The author recommends:

  1. Make friendships in which nothing is asked for in return.
  2. Make a conscious effort that feeds genuine interest in others.
  3. Devote time to the attention and understanding of others.
  4. Learn to listen.
  5. Treat other people as equals.
  6. Encourage others, not just criticize them.
  7. Emphasize the strengths and virtues people find in others, not just their weaknesses.

Courage and courage

Being brave means being able to take a position, being able to take risks. The brave leader faces different situations; he does not avoid confrontations because he has confidence in his capabilities and possibilities. Sometimes doing the right thing for an organization has a high price for it.

The great capacity of communication

A leader is a communicator par excellence. He must transmit the vision to his followers and encourage them to overcome the difficulties that arise. For this reason, you must master the techniques of verbal and written communication; As well as using varied forms of expression.The ability to communicate effectively through word and deed is undoubtedly one of the most valuable features of a leader. Communication is the means used to unite and direct the group.

Communication takes place when the recipient understands the meaning of the message he has received. The existence of multiple impediments to effective communication makes it an art and a science at the same time.

The ability to identify opportunities and overcome the fear of mistakes

Great opportunities disguise themselves shrewdly under the guise of insurmountable problems. Knowledge of this principle allows leaders to identify great opportunities for masked action after obstacles that, at first glance, seem insurmountable. This requires a discipline that helps to recognize them.On the other hand, it is possible to learn from mistakes in order to obtain the expected benefits. Nobody is perfect, but it is necessary that the leader has a very special character so as not to despair; this will help you deal with clumsiness productively and eliminate the fear of making mistakes.

The leader in the field of information

When a new organizational paradigm emerges in which the institution sustains its operations in an open teleinformatic network, and moved to the old closed traditional scheme, the professional of the information has to rise to take the place of the leader like manager of the information. In this process, the traits mentioned above become part of the pyramid of information specialist training. This is the way to occupy the space that really corresponds to it and becomes the protagonist of the changes that occur in the processes of information management, as a consequence of the establishment of a new organizational and technological paradigm.There are three indispensable attributes of the leaders in the information sector in this new context.  An information manager should:

  • Generate alliances from organizational political projects.
  • Manage the articulations of the new information management circuits.
  • To form new leaders in this field.

These actions allow the leader in information management to be inserted in the context of political and organizational life, making it a viable factor for substantial changes. For this, it will also require both a perception of the internal activity of the organization and a determined attitude in the direction of organizational processes.In order to generate alliances and conquer the world of information, the leader not only has to treasure the knowledge set of his activity, but also a series of elements of a general nature that enable him to become a true manager of information.